Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format developed by Adobe in 1992 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

This covers how to load `PDF`

documents into the Document format that we use downstream.

## Using PyPDF

Load PDF using `pypdf`

into array of documents, where each document contains the page content and metadata with `page`

number.

`pip install pypdf`

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PyPDFLoader`

loader = PyPDFLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")

pages = loader.load_and_split()

#### API Reference:

`pages[0]`

` Document(page_content='LayoutParser : A Uni\x0ced Toolkit for Deep\nLearning Based Document Image Analysis\nZejiang Shen1( \x00), Ruochen Zhang2, Melissa Dell3, Benjamin Charles Germain\nLee4, Jacob Carlson3, and Weining Li5\n1Allen Institute for AI\nshannons@allenai.org\n2Brown University\nruochen zhang@brown.edu\n3Harvard University\nfmelissadell,jacob carlson g@fas.harvard.edu\n4University of Washington\nbcgl@cs.washington.edu\n5University of Waterloo\nw422li@uwaterloo.ca\nAbstract. Recent advances in document image analysis (DIA) have been\nprimarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research\noutcomes could be easily deployed in production and extended for further\ninvestigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases\nand sophisticated model con\x0cgurations complicate the easy reuse of im-\nportant innovations by a wide audience. Though there have been on-going\ne\x0borts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model\ndevelopment in disciplines like natural language processing and computer\nvision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA.\nThis represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to\nacademic research across a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences\nand humanities. This paper introduces LayoutParser , an open-source\nlibrary for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applica-\ntions. The core LayoutParser library comes with a set of simple and\nintuitive interfaces for applying and customizing DL models for layout de-\ntection, character recognition, and many other document processing tasks.\nTo promote extensibility, LayoutParser also incorporates a community\nplatform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digiti-\nzation pipelines. We demonstrate that LayoutParser is helpful for both\nlightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases.\nThe library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io .\nKeywords: Document Image Analysis ·Deep Learning ·Layout Analysis\n·Character Recognition ·Open Source library ·Toolkit.\n1 Introduction\nDeep Learning(DL)-based approaches are the state-of-the-art for a wide range of\ndocument image analysis (DIA) tasks including document image classi\x0ccation [ 11,arXiv:2103.15348v2 [cs.CV] 21 Jun 2021', metadata={'source': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf', 'page': 0})`

An advantage of this approach is that documents can be retrieved with page numbers.

We want to use `OpenAIEmbeddings`

so we have to get the OpenAI API Key.

`import os`

import getpass

os.environ['OPENAI_API_KEY'] = getpass.getpass('OpenAI API Key:')

` OpenAI API Key: ········`

`from langchain_community.vectorstores import FAISS`

from langchain_openai import OpenAIEmbeddings

faiss_index = FAISS.from_documents(pages, OpenAIEmbeddings())

docs = faiss_index.similarity_search("How will the community be engaged?", k=2)

for doc in docs:

print(str(doc.metadata["page"]) + ":", doc.page_content[:300])

#### API Reference:

` 9: 10 Z. Shen et al.`

Fig. 4: Illustration of (a) the original historical Japanese document with layout

detection results and (b) a recreated version of the document image that achieves

much better character recognition recall. The reorganization algorithm rearranges

the tokens based on the their detect

3: 4 Z. Shen et al.

Efficient Data AnnotationC u s t o m i z e d M o d e l T r a i n i n gModel Cust omizationDI A Model HubDI A Pipeline SharingCommunity PlatformLa y out Detection ModelsDocument Images

T h e C o r e L a y o u t P a r s e r L i b r a r yOCR ModuleSt or age & VisualizationLa y ou

### Extracting images

Using the `rapidocr-onnxruntime`

package we can extract images as text as well:

`pip install rapidocr-onnxruntime`

`loader = PyPDFLoader("https://arxiv.org/pdf/2103.15348.pdf", extract_images=True)`

pages = loader.load()

pages[4].page_content

`'LayoutParser : A Uniﬁed Toolkit for DL-Based DIA 5\nTable 1: Current layout detection models in the LayoutParser model zoo\nDataset Base Model1Large Model Notes\nPubLayNet [38] F / M M Layouts of modern scientiﬁc documents\nPRImA [3] M - Layouts of scanned modern magazines and scientiﬁc reports\nNewspaper [17] F - Layouts of scanned US newspapers from the 20th century\nTableBank [18] F F Table region on modern scientiﬁc and business document\nHJDataset [31] F / M - Layouts of history Japanese documents\n1For each dataset, we train several models of diﬀerent sizes for diﬀerent needs (the trade-oﬀ between accuracy\nvs. computational cost). For “base model” and “large model”, we refer to using the ResNet 50 or ResNet 101\nbackbones [ 13], respectively. One can train models of diﬀerent architectures, like Faster R-CNN [ 28] (F) and Mask\nR-CNN [ 12] (M). For example, an F in the Large Model column indicates it has a Faster R-CNN model trained\nusing the ResNet 101 backbone. The platform is maintained and a number of additions will be made to the model\nzoo in coming months.\nlayout data structures , which are optimized for eﬃciency and versatility. 3) When\nnecessary, users can employ existing or customized OCR models via the uniﬁed\nAPI provided in the OCR module . 4)LayoutParser comes with a set of utility\nfunctions for the visualization and storage of the layout data. 5) LayoutParser\nis also highly customizable, via its integration with functions for layout data\nannotation and model training . We now provide detailed descriptions for each\ncomponent.\n3.1 Layout Detection Models\nInLayoutParser , a layout model takes a document image as an input and\ngenerates a list of rectangular boxes for the target content regions. Diﬀerent\nfrom traditional methods, it relies on deep convolutional neural networks rather\nthan manually curated rules to identify content regions. It is formulated as an\nobject detection problem and state-of-the-art models like Faster R-CNN [ 28] and\nMask R-CNN [ 12] are used. This yields prediction results of high accuracy and\nmakes it possible to build a concise, generalized interface for layout detection.\nLayoutParser , built upon Detectron2 [ 35], provides a minimal API that can\nperform layout detection with only four lines of code in Python:\n1import layoutparser as lp\n2image = cv2. imread (" image_file ") # load images\n3model = lp. Detectron2LayoutModel (\n4 "lp :// PubLayNet / faster_rcnn_R_50_FPN_3x / config ")\n5layout = model . detect ( image )\nLayoutParser provides a wealth of pre-trained model weights using various\ndatasets covering diﬀerent languages, time periods, and document types. Due to\ndomain shift [ 7], the prediction performance can notably drop when models are ap-\nplied to target samples that are signiﬁcantly diﬀerent from the training dataset. As\ndocument structures and layouts vary greatly in diﬀerent domains, it is important\nto select models trained on a dataset similar to the test samples. A semantic syntax\nis used for initializing the model weights in LayoutParser , using both the dataset\nname and model name lp://<dataset-name>/<model-architecture-name> .'`

## Using PyMuPDF

This is the fastest of the PDF parsing options, and contains detailed metadata about the PDF and its pages, as well as returns one document per page.

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PyMuPDFLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PyMuPDFLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

`data[0]`

` Document(page_content='LayoutParser: A Uniﬁed Toolkit for Deep\nLearning Based Document Image Analysis\nZejiang Shen1 (�), Ruochen Zhang2, Melissa Dell3, Benjamin Charles Germain\nLee4, Jacob Carlson3, and Weining Li5\n1 Allen Institute for AI\nshannons@allenai.org\n2 Brown University\nruochen zhang@brown.edu\n3 Harvard University\n{melissadell,jacob carlson}@fas.harvard.edu\n4 University of Washington\nbcgl@cs.washington.edu\n5 University of Waterloo\nw422li@uwaterloo.ca\nAbstract. Recent advances in document image analysis (DIA) have been\nprimarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research\noutcomes could be easily deployed in production and extended for further\ninvestigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases\nand sophisticated model conﬁgurations complicate the easy reuse of im-\nportant innovations by a wide audience. Though there have been on-going\neﬀorts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model\ndevelopment in disciplines like natural language processing and computer\nvision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA.\nThis represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to\nacademic research across a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences\nand humanities. This paper introduces LayoutParser, an open-source\nlibrary for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applica-\ntions. The core LayoutParser library comes with a set of simple and\nintuitive interfaces for applying and customizing DL models for layout de-\ntection, character recognition, and many other document processing tasks.\nTo promote extensibility, LayoutParser also incorporates a community\nplatform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digiti-\nzation pipelines. We demonstrate that LayoutParser is helpful for both\nlightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases.\nThe library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io.\nKeywords: Document Image Analysis · Deep Learning · Layout Analysis\n· Character Recognition · Open Source library · Toolkit.\n1\nIntroduction\nDeep Learning(DL)-based approaches are the state-of-the-art for a wide range of\ndocument image analysis (DIA) tasks including document image classiﬁcation [11,\narXiv:2103.15348v2 [cs.CV] 21 Jun 2021\n', lookup_str='', metadata={'file_path': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf', 'page_number': 1, 'total_pages': 16, 'format': 'PDF 1.5', 'title': '', 'author': '', 'subject': '', 'keywords': '', 'creator': 'LaTeX with hyperref', 'producer': 'pdfTeX-1.40.21', 'creationDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'modDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'trapped': '', 'encryption': None}, lookup_index=0)`

Additionally, you can pass along any of the options from the PyMuPDF documentation as keyword arguments in the `load`

call, and it will be pass along to the `get_text()`

call.

## Using MathPix

Inspired by Daniel Gross's https://gist.github.com/danielgross/3ab4104e14faccc12b49200843adab21

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import MathpixPDFLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = MathpixPDFLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

## Using Unstructured

The `unstructured[all-docs]`

package currently supports loading of text files, powerpoints, html, pdfs, images, and more.

`pip install unstructured[pdf]`

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import UnstructuredPDFLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = UnstructuredPDFLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

### Retain Elements

Under the hood, Unstructured creates different "elements" for different chunks of text. By default we combine those together, but you can easily keep that separation by specifying `mode="elements"`

.

`loader = UnstructuredPDFLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf", mode="elements")`

`data = loader.load()`

`data[0]`

` Document(page_content='LayoutParser: A Uniﬁed Toolkit for Deep\nLearning Based Document Image Analysis\nZejiang Shen1 (�), Ruochen Zhang2, Melissa Dell3, Benjamin Charles Germain\nLee4, Jacob Carlson3, and Weining Li5\n1 Allen Institute for AI\nshannons@allenai.org\n2 Brown University\nruochen zhang@brown.edu\n3 Harvard University\n{melissadell,jacob carlson}@fas.harvard.edu\n4 University of Washington\nbcgl@cs.washington.edu\n5 University of Waterloo\nw422li@uwaterloo.ca\nAbstract. Recent advances in document image analysis (DIA) have been\nprimarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research\noutcomes could be easily deployed in production and extended for further\ninvestigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases\nand sophisticated model conﬁgurations complicate the easy reuse of im-\nportant innovations by a wide audience. Though there have been on-going\neﬀorts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model\ndevelopment in disciplines like natural language processing and computer\nvision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA.\nThis represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to\nacademic research across a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences\nand humanities. This paper introduces LayoutParser, an open-source\nlibrary for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applica-\ntions. The core LayoutParser library comes with a set of simple and\nintuitive interfaces for applying and customizing DL models for layout de-\ntection, character recognition, and many other document processing tasks.\nTo promote extensibility, LayoutParser also incorporates a community\nplatform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digiti-\nzation pipelines. We demonstrate that LayoutParser is helpful for both\nlightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases.\nThe library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io.\nKeywords: Document Image Analysis · Deep Learning · Layout Analysis\n· Character Recognition · Open Source library · Toolkit.\n1\nIntroduction\nDeep Learning(DL)-based approaches are the state-of-the-art for a wide range of\ndocument image analysis (DIA) tasks including document image classiﬁcation [11,\narXiv:2103.15348v2 [cs.CV] 21 Jun 2021\n', lookup_str='', metadata={'file_path': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf', 'page_number': 1, 'total_pages': 16, 'format': 'PDF 1.5', 'title': '', 'author': '', 'subject': '', 'keywords': '', 'creator': 'LaTeX with hyperref', 'producer': 'pdfTeX-1.40.21', 'creationDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'modDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'trapped': '', 'encryption': None}, lookup_index=0)`

### Fetching remote PDFs using Unstructured

This covers how to load online PDFs into a document format that we can use downstream. This can be used for various online PDF sites such as https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/ and https://arxiv.org/archive/

Note: all other PDF loaders can also be used to fetch remote PDFs, but `OnlinePDFLoader`

is a legacy function, and works specifically with `UnstructuredPDFLoader`

.

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import OnlinePDFLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = OnlinePDFLoader("https://arxiv.org/pdf/2302.03803.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

`print(data)`

` [Document(page_content='A WEAK ( k, k ) -LEFSCHETZ THEOREM FOR PROJECTIVE TORIC ORBIFOLDS\n\nWilliam D. Montoya\n\nInstituto de Matem´atica, Estat´ıstica e Computa¸c˜ao Cient´ıﬁca,\n\nIn [3] we proved that, under suitable conditions, on a very general codimension s quasi- smooth intersection subvariety X in a projective toric orbifold P d Σ with d + s = 2 ( k + 1 ) the Hodge conjecture holds, that is, every ( p, p ) -cohomology class, under the Poincar´e duality is a rational linear combination of fundamental classes of algebraic subvarieties of X . The proof of the above-mentioned result relies, for p ≠ d + 1 − s , on a Lefschetz\n\nKeywords: (1,1)- Lefschetz theorem, Hodge conjecture, toric varieties, complete intersection Email: wmontoya@ime.unicamp.br\n\ntheorem ([7]) and the Hard Lefschetz theorem for projective orbifolds ([11]). When p = d + 1 − s the proof relies on the Cayley trick, a trick which associates to X a quasi-smooth hypersurface Y in a projective vector bundle, and the Cayley Proposition (4.3) which gives an isomorphism of some primitive cohomologies (4.2) of X and Y . The Cayley trick, following the philosophy of Mavlyutov in [7], reduces results known for quasi-smooth hypersurfaces to quasi-smooth intersection subvarieties. The idea in this paper goes the other way around, we translate some results for quasi-smooth intersection subvarieties to\n\nAcknowledgement. I thank Prof. Ugo Bruzzo and Tiago Fonseca for useful discus- sions. I also acknowledge support from FAPESP postdoctoral grant No. 2019/23499-7.\n\nLet M be a free abelian group of rank d , let N = Hom ( M, Z ) , and N R = N ⊗ Z R .\n\nif there exist k linearly independent primitive elements e\n\n, . . . , e k ∈ N such that σ = { µ\n\ne\n\n+ ⋯ + µ k e k } . • The generators e i are integral if for every i and any nonnegative rational number µ the product µe i is in N only if µ is an integer. • Given two rational simplicial cones σ , σ ′ one says that σ ′ is a face of σ ( σ ′ < σ ) if the set of integral generators of σ ′ is a subset of the set of integral generators of σ . • A ﬁnite set Σ = { σ\n\n, . . . , σ t } of rational simplicial cones is called a rational simplicial complete d -dimensional fan if:\n\nall faces of cones in Σ are in Σ ;\n\nif σ, σ ′ ∈ Σ then σ ∩ σ ′ < σ and σ ∩ σ ′ < σ ′ ;\n\nN R = σ\n\n∪ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∪ σ t .\n\nA rational simplicial complete d -dimensional fan Σ deﬁnes a d -dimensional toric variety P d Σ having only orbifold singularities which we assume to be projective. Moreover, T ∶ = N ⊗ Z C ∗ ≃ ( C ∗ ) d is the torus action on P d Σ . We denote by Σ ( i ) the i -dimensional cones\n\nFor a cone σ ∈ Σ, ˆ σ is the set of 1-dimensional cone in Σ that are not contained in σ\n\nand x ˆ σ ∶ = ∏ ρ ∈ ˆ σ x ρ is the associated monomial in S .\n\nDeﬁnition 2.2. The irrelevant ideal of P d Σ is the monomial ideal B Σ ∶ =< x ˆ σ ∣ σ ∈ Σ > and the zero locus Z ( Σ ) ∶ = V ( B Σ ) in the aﬃne space A d ∶ = Spec ( S ) is the irrelevant locus.\n\nProposition 2.3 (Theorem 5.1.11 [5]) . The toric variety P d Σ is a categorical quotient A d ∖ Z ( Σ ) by the group Hom ( Cl ( Σ ) , C ∗ ) and the group action is induced by the Cl ( Σ ) - grading of S .\n\nNow we give a brief introduction to complex orbifolds and we mention the needed theorems for the next section. Namely: de Rham theorem and Dolbeault theorem for complex orbifolds.\n\nDeﬁnition 2.4. A complex orbifold of complex dimension d is a singular complex space whose singularities are locally isomorphic to quotient singularities C d / G , for ﬁnite sub- groups G ⊂ Gl ( d, C ) .\n\nDeﬁnition 2.5. A diﬀerential form on a complex orbifold Z is deﬁned locally at z ∈ Z as a G -invariant diﬀerential form on C d where G ⊂ Gl ( d, C ) and Z is locally isomorphic to d\n\nRoughly speaking the local geometry of orbifolds reduces to local G -invariant geometry.\n\nWe have a complex of diﬀerential forms ( A ● ( Z ) , d ) and a double complex ( A ● , ● ( Z ) , ∂, ¯ ∂ ) of bigraded diﬀerential forms which deﬁne the de Rham and the Dolbeault cohomology groups (for a ﬁxed p ∈ N ) respectively:\n\n(1,1)-Lefschetz theorem for projective toric orbifolds\n\nDeﬁnition 3.1. A subvariety X ⊂ P d Σ is quasi-smooth if V ( I X ) ⊂ A #Σ ( 1 ) is smooth outside\n\nExample 3.2 . Quasi-smooth hypersurfaces or more generally quasi-smooth intersection sub-\n\nExample 3.2 . Quasi-smooth hypersurfaces or more generally quasi-smooth intersection sub- varieties are quasi-smooth subvarieties (see [2] or [7] for more details).\n\nRemark 3.3 . Quasi-smooth subvarieties are suborbifolds of P d Σ in the sense of Satake in [8]. Intuitively speaking they are subvarieties whose only singularities come from the ambient\n\nProof. From the exponential short exact sequence\n\nwe have a long exact sequence in cohomology\n\nH 1 (O ∗ X ) → H 2 ( X, Z ) → H 2 (O X ) ≃ H 0 , 2 ( X )\n\nwhere the last isomorphisms is due to Steenbrink in [9]. Now, it is enough to prove the commutativity of the next diagram\n\nwhere the last isomorphisms is due to Steenbrink in [9]. Now,\n\nH 2 ( X, Z ) / / H 2 ( X, O X ) ≃ Dolbeault H 2 ( X, C ) deRham ≃ H 2 dR ( X, C ) / / H 0 , 2 ¯ ∂ ( X )\n\nof the proof follows as the ( 1 , 1 ) -Lefschetz theorem in [6].\n\nRemark 3.5 . For k = 1 and P d Σ as the projective space, we recover the classical ( 1 , 1 ) - Lefschetz theorem.\n\nBy the Hard Lefschetz Theorem for projective orbifolds (see [11] for details) we\n\nBy the Hard Lefschetz Theorem for projective orbifolds (see [11] for details) we get an isomorphism of cohomologies :\n\ngiven by the Lefschetz morphism and since it is a morphism of Hodge structures, we have:\n\nH 1 , 1 ( X, Q ) ≃ H dim X − 1 , dim X − 1 ( X, Q )\n\nCorollary 3.6. If the dimension of X is 1 , 2 or 3 . The Hodge conjecture holds on X\n\nProof. If the dim C X = 1 the result is clear by the Hard Lefschetz theorem for projective orbifolds. The dimension 2 and 3 cases are covered by Theorem 3.5 and the Hard Lefschetz.\n\nCayley trick and Cayley proposition\n\nThe Cayley trick is a way to associate to a quasi-smooth intersection subvariety a quasi- smooth hypersurface. Let L 1 , . . . , L s be line bundles on P d Σ and let π ∶ P ( E ) → P d Σ be the projective space bundle associated to the vector bundle E = L 1 ⊕ ⋯ ⊕ L s . It is known that P ( E ) is a ( d + s − 1 ) -dimensional simplicial toric variety whose fan depends on the degrees of the line bundles and the fan Σ. Furthermore, if the Cox ring, without considering the grading, of P d Σ is C [ x 1 , . . . , x m ] then the Cox ring of P ( E ) is\n\nMoreover for X a quasi-smooth intersection subvariety cut oﬀ by f 1 , . . . , f s with deg ( f i ) = [ L i ] we relate the hypersurface Y cut oﬀ by F = y 1 f 1 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + y s f s which turns out to be quasi-smooth. For more details see Section 2 in [7].\n\nWe will denote P ( E ) as P d + s − 1 Σ ,X to keep track of its relation with X and P d Σ .\n\nThe following is a key remark.\n\nRemark 4.1 . There is a morphism ι ∶ X → Y ⊂ P d + s − 1 Σ ,X . Moreover every point z ∶ = ( x, y ) ∈ Y with y ≠ 0 has a preimage. Hence for any subvariety W = V ( I W ) ⊂ X ⊂ P d Σ there exists W ′ ⊂ Y ⊂ P d + s − 1 Σ ,X such that π ( W ′ ) = W , i.e., W ′ = { z = ( x, y ) ∣ x ∈ W } .\n\nFor X ⊂ P d Σ a quasi-smooth intersection variety the morphism in cohomology induced by the inclusion i ∗ ∶ H d − s ( P d Σ , C ) → H d − s ( X, C ) is injective by Proposition 1.4 in [7].\n\nDeﬁnition 4.2. The primitive cohomology of H d − s prim ( X ) is the quotient H d − s ( X, C )/ i ∗ ( H d − s ( P d Σ , C )) and H d − s prim ( X, Q ) with rational coeﬃcients.\n\nH d − s ( P d Σ , C ) and H d − s ( X, C ) have pure Hodge structures, and the morphism i ∗ is com- patible with them, so that H d − s prim ( X ) gets a pure Hodge structure.\n\nThe next Proposition is the Cayley proposition.\n\nProposition 4.3. [Proposition 2.3 in [3] ] Let X = X 1 ∩⋅ ⋅ ⋅∩ X s be a quasi-smooth intersec- tion subvariety in P d Σ cut oﬀ by homogeneous polynomials f 1 . . . f s . Then for p ≠ d + s − 1 2 , d + s − 3 2\n\nRemark 4.5 . The above isomorphisms are also true with rational coeﬃcients since H ● ( X, C ) = H ● ( X, Q ) ⊗ Q C . See the beginning of Section 7.1 in [10] for more details.\n\nTheorem 5.1. Let Y = { F = y 1 f 1 + ⋯ + y k f k = 0 } ⊂ P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X be the quasi-smooth hypersurface associated to the quasi-smooth intersection surface X = X f 1 ∩ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∩ X f k ⊂ P k + 2 Σ . Then on Y the Hodge conjecture holds.\n\nthe Hodge conjecture holds.\n\nProof. If H k,k prim ( X, Q ) = 0 we are done. So let us assume H k,k prim ( X, Q ) ≠ 0. By the Cayley proposition H k,k prim ( Y, Q ) ≃ H 1 , 1 prim ( X, Q ) and by the ( 1 , 1 ) -Lefschetz theorem for projective\n\ntoric orbifolds there is a non-zero algebraic basis λ C 1 , . . . , λ C n with rational coeﬃcients of H 1 , 1 prim ( X, Q ) , that is, there are n ∶ = h 1 , 1 prim ( X, Q ) algebraic curves C 1 , . . . , C n in X such that under the Poincar´e duality the class in homology [ C i ] goes to λ C i , [ C i ] ↦ λ C i . Recall that the Cox ring of P k + 2 is contained in the Cox ring of P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X without considering the grading. Considering the grading we have that if α ∈ Cl ( P k + 2 Σ ) then ( α, 0 ) ∈ Cl ( P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X ) . So the polynomials deﬁning C i ⊂ P k + 2 Σ can be interpreted in P 2 k + 1 X, Σ but with diﬀerent degree. Moreover, by Remark 4.1 each C i is contained in Y = { F = y 1 f 1 + ⋯ + y k f k = 0 } and\n\nfurthermore it has codimension k .\n\nClaim: { C i } ni = 1 is a basis of prim ( ) . It is enough to prove that λ C i is diﬀerent from zero in H k,k prim ( Y, Q ) or equivalently that the cohomology classes { λ C i } ni = 1 do not come from the ambient space. By contradiction, let us assume that there exists a j and C ⊂ P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X such that λ C ∈ H k,k ( P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X , Q ) with i ∗ ( λ C ) = λ C j or in terms of homology there exists a ( k + 2 ) -dimensional algebraic subvariety V ⊂ P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X such that V ∩ Y = C j so they are equal as a homology class of P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X ,i.e., [ V ∩ Y ] = [ C j ] . It is easy to check that π ( V ) ∩ X = C j as a subvariety of P k + 2 Σ where π ∶ ( x, y ) ↦ x . Hence [ π ( V ) ∩ X ] = [ C j ] which is equivalent to say that λ C j comes from P k + 2 Σ which contradicts the choice of [ C j ] .\n\nRemark 5.2 . Into the proof of the previous theorem, the key fact was that on X the Hodge conjecture holds and we translate it to Y by contradiction. So, using an analogous argument we have:\n\nargument we have:\n\nProposition 5.3. Let Y = { F = y 1 f s +⋯+ y s f s = 0 } ⊂ P 2 k + 1 Σ ,X be the quasi-smooth hypersurface associated to a quasi-smooth intersection subvariety X = X f 1 ∩ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ∩ X f s ⊂ P d Σ such that d + s = 2 ( k + 1 ) . If the Hodge conjecture holds on X then it holds as well on Y .\n\nCorollary 5.4. If the dimension of Y is 2 s − 1 , 2 s or 2 s + 1 then the Hodge conjecture holds on Y .\n\nProof. By Proposition 5.3 and Corollary 3.6.\n\n[\n\n] Angella, D. Cohomologies of certain orbifolds. Journal of Geometry and Physics\n\n(\n\n),\n\n–\n\n[\n\n] Batyrev, V. V., and Cox, D. A. On the Hodge structure of projective hypersur- faces in toric varieties. Duke Mathematical Journal\n\n,\n\n(Aug\n\n). [\n\n] Bruzzo, U., and Montoya, W. On the Hodge conjecture for quasi-smooth in- tersections in toric varieties. S˜ao Paulo J. Math. Sci. Special Section: Geometry in Algebra and Algebra in Geometry (\n\n). [\n\n] Caramello Jr, F. C. Introduction to orbifolds. a\n\niv:\n\nv\n\n(\n\n). [\n\n] Cox, D., Little, J., and Schenck, H. Toric varieties, vol.\n\nAmerican Math- ematical Soc.,\n\n[\n\n] Griffiths, P., and Harris, J. Principles of Algebraic Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,\n\n[\n\n] Mavlyutov, A. R. Cohomology of complete intersections in toric varieties. Pub- lished in Paciﬁc J. of Math.\n\nNo.\n\n(\n\n),\n\n–\n\n[\n\n] Satake, I. On a Generalization of the Notion of Manifold. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America\n\n,\n\n(\n\n),\n\n–\n\n[\n\n] Steenbrink, J. H. M. Intersection form for quasi-homogeneous singularities. Com- positio Mathematica\n\n,\n\n(\n\n),\n\n–\n\n[\n\n] Voisin, C. Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry I, vol.\n\nof Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics . Cambridge University Press,\n\n[\n\n] Wang, Z. Z., and Zaffran, D. A remark on the Hard Lefschetz theorem for K¨ahler orbifolds. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society\n\n,\n\n(Aug\n\n).\n\n[2] Batyrev, V. V., and Cox, D. A. On the Hodge structure of projective hypersur- faces in toric varieties. Duke Mathematical Journal 75, 2 (Aug 1994).\n\n[\n\n] Bruzzo, U., and Montoya, W. On the Hodge conjecture for quasi-smooth in- tersections in toric varieties. S˜ao Paulo J. Math. Sci. Special Section: Geometry in Algebra and Algebra in Geometry (\n\n).\n\n[3] Bruzzo, U., and Montoya, W. On the Hodge conjecture for quasi-smooth in- tersections in toric varieties. S˜ao Paulo J. Math. Sci. Special Section: Geometry in Algebra and Algebra in Geometry (2021).\n\nA. R. Cohomology of complete intersections in toric varieties. Pub-', lookup_str='', metadata={'source': '/var/folders/ph/hhm7_zyx4l13k3v8z02dwp1w0000gn/T/tmpgq0ckaja/online_file.pdf'}, lookup_index=0)]`

## Using PyPDFium2

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PyPDFium2Loader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PyPDFium2Loader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

## Using PDFMiner

PDFMiner is a tool that can help with extracting information and analyzing data from PDF documents.

`pip install pdfminer.six`

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PDFMinerLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PDFMinerLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

### Using PDFMiner to generate HTML text

This can be helpful for chunking texts semantically into sections as the output html content can be parsed via `BeautifulSoup`

to get more structured and rich information about font size, page numbers, PDF headers/footers, etc.

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PDFMinerPDFasHTMLLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PDFMinerPDFasHTMLLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()[0] # entire PDF is loaded as a single Document`

`from bs4 import BeautifulSoup`

soup = BeautifulSoup(data.page_content,'html.parser')

content = soup.find_all('div')

`import re`

cur_fs = None

cur_text = ''

snippets = [] # first collect all snippets that have the same font size

for c in content:

sp = c.find('span')

if not sp:

continue

st = sp.get('style')

if not st:

continue

fs = re.findall('font-size:(\d+)px',st)

if not fs:

continue

fs = int(fs[0])

if not cur_fs:

cur_fs = fs

if fs == cur_fs:

cur_text += c.text

else:

snippets.append((cur_text,cur_fs))

cur_fs = fs

cur_text = c.text

snippets.append((cur_text,cur_fs))

# Note: The above logic is very straightforward. One can also add more strategies such as removing duplicate snippets (as

# headers/footers in a PDF appear on multiple pages so if we find duplicates it's safe to assume that it is redundant info)

`from langchain_community.docstore.document import Document`

cur_idx = -1

semantic_snippets = []

# Assumption: headings have higher font size than their respective content

for s in snippets:

# if current snippet's font size > previous section's heading => it is a new heading

if not semantic_snippets or s[1] > semantic_snippets[cur_idx].metadata['heading_font']:

metadata={'heading':s[0], 'content_font': 0, 'heading_font': s[1]}

metadata.update(data.metadata)

semantic_snippets.append(Document(page_content='',metadata=metadata))

cur_idx += 1

continue

# if current snippet's font size <= previous section's content => content belongs to the same section (one can also create

# a tree like structure for sub sections if needed but that may require some more thinking and may be data specific)

if not semantic_snippets[cur_idx].metadata['content_font'] or s[1] <= semantic_snippets[cur_idx].metadata['content_font']:

semantic_snippets[cur_idx].page_content += s[0]

semantic_snippets[cur_idx].metadata['content_font'] = max(s[1], semantic_snippets[cur_idx].metadata['content_font'])

continue

# if current snippet's font size > previous section's content but less than previous section's heading than also make a new

# section (e.g. title of a PDF will have the highest font size but we don't want it to subsume all sections)

metadata={'heading':s[0], 'content_font': 0, 'heading_font': s[1]}

metadata.update(data.metadata)

semantic_snippets.append(Document(page_content='',metadata=metadata))

cur_idx += 1

#### API Reference:

`semantic_snippets[4]`

` Document(page_content='Recently, various DL models and datasets have been developed for layout analysis\ntasks. The dhSegment [22] utilizes fully convolutional networks [20] for segmen-\ntation tasks on historical documents. Object detection-based methods like Faster\nR-CNN [28] and Mask R-CNN [12] are used for identifying document elements [38]\nand detecting tables [30, 26]. Most recently, Graph Neural Networks [29] have also\nbeen used in table detection [27]. However, these models are usually implemented\nindividually and there is no uniﬁed framework to load and use such models.\nThere has been a surge of interest in creating open-source tools for document\nimage processing: a search of document image analysis in Github leads to 5M\nrelevant code pieces 6; yet most of them rely on traditional rule-based methods\nor provide limited functionalities. The closest prior research to our work is the\nOCR-D project7, which also tries to build a complete toolkit for DIA. However,\nsimilar to the platform developed by Neudecker et al. [21], it is designed for\nanalyzing historical documents, and provides no supports for recent DL models.\nThe DocumentLayoutAnalysis project8 focuses on processing born-digital PDF\ndocuments via analyzing the stored PDF data. Repositories like DeepLayout9\nand Detectron2-PubLayNet10 are individual deep learning models trained on\nlayout analysis datasets without support for the full DIA pipeline. The Document\nAnalysis and Exploitation (DAE) platform [15] and the DeepDIVA project [2]\naim to improve the reproducibility of DIA methods (or DL models), yet they\nare not actively maintained. OCR engines like Tesseract [14], easyOCR11 and\npaddleOCR12 usually do not come with comprehensive functionalities for other\nDIA tasks like layout analysis.\nRecent years have also seen numerous eﬀorts to create libraries for promoting\nreproducibility and reusability in the ﬁeld of DL. Libraries like Dectectron2 [35],\n6 The number shown is obtained by specifying the search type as ‘code’.\n7 https://ocr-d.de/en/about\n8 https://github.com/BobLd/DocumentLayoutAnalysis\n9 https://github.com/leonlulu/DeepLayout\n10 https://github.com/hpanwar08/detectron2\n11 https://github.com/JaidedAI/EasyOCR\n12 https://github.com/PaddlePaddle/PaddleOCR\n4\nZ. Shen et al.\nFig. 1: The overall architecture of LayoutParser. For an input document image,\nthe core LayoutParser library provides a set of oﬀ-the-shelf tools for layout\ndetection, OCR, visualization, and storage, backed by a carefully designed layout\ndata structure. LayoutParser also supports high level customization via eﬃcient\nlayout annotation and model training functions. These improve model accuracy\non the target samples. The community platform enables the easy sharing of DIA\nmodels and whole digitization pipelines to promote reusability and reproducibility.\nA collection of detailed documentation, tutorials and exemplar projects make\nLayoutParser easy to learn and use.\nAllenNLP [8] and transformers [34] have provided the community with complete\nDL-based support for developing and deploying models for general computer\nvision and natural language processing problems. LayoutParser, on the other\nhand, specializes speciﬁcally in DIA tasks. LayoutParser is also equipped with a\ncommunity platform inspired by established model hubs such as Torch Hub [23]\nand TensorFlow Hub [1]. It enables the sharing of pretrained models as well as\nfull document processing pipelines that are unique to DIA tasks.\nThere have been a variety of document data collections to facilitate the\ndevelopment of DL models. Some examples include PRImA [3](magazine layouts),\nPubLayNet [38](academic paper layouts), Table Bank [18](tables in academic\npapers), Newspaper Navigator Dataset [16, 17](newspaper ﬁgure layouts) and\nHJDataset [31](historical Japanese document layouts). A spectrum of models\ntrained on these datasets are currently available in the LayoutParser model zoo\nto support diﬀerent use cases.\n', metadata={'heading': '2 Related Work\n', 'content_font': 9, 'heading_font': 11, 'source': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf'})`

## PyPDF Directory

Load PDFs from directory

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PyPDFDirectoryLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PyPDFDirectoryLoader("example_data/")`

`docs = loader.load()`

## Using PDFPlumber

Like PyMuPDF, the output Documents contain detailed metadata about the PDF and its pages, and returns one document per page.

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import PDFPlumberLoader`

#### API Reference:

`loader = PDFPlumberLoader("example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf")`

`data = loader.load()`

`data[0]`

` Document(page_content='LayoutParser: A Unified Toolkit for Deep\nLearning Based Document Image Analysis\nZejiang Shen1 ((cid:0)), Ruochen Zhang2, Melissa Dell3, Benjamin Charles Germain\nLee4, Jacob Carlson3, and Weining Li5\n1 Allen Institute for AI\n1202 shannons@allenai.org\n2 Brown University\nruochen zhang@brown.edu\n3 Harvard University\nnuJ {melissadell,jacob carlson}@fas.harvard.edu\n4 University of Washington\nbcgl@cs.washington.edu\n12 5 University of Waterloo\nw422li@uwaterloo.ca\n]VC.sc[\nAbstract. Recentadvancesindocumentimageanalysis(DIA)havebeen\nprimarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research\noutcomescouldbeeasilydeployedinproductionandextendedforfurther\ninvestigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases\nand sophisticated model configurations complicate the easy reuse of im-\n2v84351.3012:viXra portantinnovationsbyawideaudience.Thoughtherehavebeenon-going\nefforts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model\ndevelopmentindisciplineslikenaturallanguageprocessingandcomputer\nvision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA.\nThis represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to\nacademicresearchacross awiderangeof disciplinesinthesocialsciences\nand humanities. This paper introduces LayoutParser, an open-source\nlibrary for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applica-\ntions. The core LayoutParser library comes with a set of simple and\nintuitiveinterfacesforapplyingandcustomizingDLmodelsforlayoutde-\ntection,characterrecognition,andmanyotherdocumentprocessingtasks.\nTo promote extensibility, LayoutParser also incorporates a community\nplatform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digiti-\nzation pipelines. We demonstrate that LayoutParser is helpful for both\nlightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases.\nThe library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io.\nKeywords: DocumentImageAnalysis·DeepLearning·LayoutAnalysis\n· Character Recognition · Open Source library · Toolkit.\n1 Introduction\nDeep Learning(DL)-based approaches are the state-of-the-art for a wide range of\ndocumentimageanalysis(DIA)tasksincludingdocumentimageclassification[11,', metadata={'source': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf', 'file_path': 'example_data/layout-parser-paper.pdf', 'page': 1, 'total_pages': 16, 'Author': '', 'CreationDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'Creator': 'LaTeX with hyperref', 'Keywords': '', 'ModDate': 'D:20210622012710Z', 'PTEX.Fullbanner': 'This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.21 (TeX Live 2020) kpathsea version 6.3.2', 'Producer': 'pdfTeX-1.40.21', 'Subject': '', 'Title': '', 'Trapped': 'False'})`

## Using AmazonTextractPDFParser

The AmazonTextractPDFLoader calls the Amazon Textract Service to convert PDFs into a Document structure. The loader does pure OCR at the moment, with more features like layout support planned, depending on demand. Single and multi-page documents are supported with up to 3000 pages and 512 MB of size.

For the call to be successful an AWS account is required, similar to the AWS CLI requirements.

Besides the AWS configuration, it is very similar to the other PDF loaders, while also supporting JPEG, PNG and TIFF and non-native PDF formats.

`from langchain_community.document_loaders import AmazonTextractPDFLoader`

loader = AmazonTextractPDFLoader("example_data/alejandro_rosalez_sample-small.jpeg")

documents = loader.load()

#### API Reference:

## Using AzureAIDocumentIntelligenceLoader

Azure AI Document Intelligence (formerly known as `Azure Form Recognizer`

) is machine-learning
based service that extracts texts (including handwriting), tables, document structures (e.g., titles, section headings, etc.) and key-value-pairs from
digital or scanned PDFs, images, Office and HTML files. Document Intelligence supports `PDF`

, `JPEG/JPG`

, `PNG`

, `BMP`

, `TIFF`

, `HEIF`

, `DOCX`

, `XLSX`

, `PPTX`

and `HTML`

.

This current implementation of a loader using `Document Intelligence`

can incorporate content page-wise and turn it into LangChain documents. The default output format is markdown, which can be easily chained with `MarkdownHeaderTextSplitter`

for semantic document chunking. You can also use `mode="single"`

or `mode="page"`

to return pure texts in a single page or document split by page.

### Prerequisite

An Azure AI Document Intelligence resource in one of the 3 preview regions: **East US**, **West US2**, **West Europe** - follow this document to create one if you don't have. You will be passing `<endpoint>`

and `<key>`

as parameters to the loader.

`%pip install --upgrade --quiet langchain langchain-community azure-ai-documentintelligence`

from langchain_community.document_loaders import AzureAIDocumentIntelligenceLoader

file_path = "<filepath>"

endpoint = "<endpoint>"

key = "<key>"

loader = AzureAIDocumentIntelligenceLoader(

api_endpoint=endpoint, api_key=key, file_path=file_path, api_model="prebuilt-layout"

)

documents = loader.load()

#### API Reference:

## Using UpstageLayoutAnalysisLoader

The UpstageLayoutAnalysisLoader invokes the Upstage Layout Analysis API to detect document elements, including tables and figures, from various document formats. This loader employs pure OCR to extract textual information and detect elements within documents such as `JPEG`

, `PNG`

, `BMP`

, `PDF`

, `TIFF`

, and `HEIC`

files. In the case of digital born PDF documents, users have the option to forego OCR and utilize text information within the file by setting use_ocr=False, which is the default value. Both single and multi-page documents are supported, with a limit of 100 pages and a file size of 50 MB when use_ocr=True, while there are no restrictions when use_ocr=False (applicable to PDF files only).

### Prerequisite

To access the Upstage Layout Analysis API, you require an API access token. Kindly refer to the quick start guide provided to obtain the access token and begin utilizing the Upstage Layout Analysis API.

`pip install langchain_upstage`

### Example

`import os`

os.environ["UPSTAGE_DOCUMENT_AI_API_KEY"] = "YOUR_API_KEY"

from langchain_upstage import UpstageLayoutAnalysisLoader

file_path = "/PATH/TO/FILE.pdf"

loader = UpstageLayoutAnalysisLoader(file_path)

data = loader.load()